Removing Barriers Hindering Protected Area Management Effectiveness in Viet Nam


Viet Nam is one of the world’s ten most biologically diverse countries- it contains about ten percent of the world’s species though covering less than 1% of global land area. Whilst virtually all protected areas in Viet Nam were designated as Special-use Forests, this will change in 2009,  with the passage of  the “Law on Biodiversity” that will come into effect on 1st July, 2009 Viet Nam will have four types of PAs which will apply to all ecosystems: National Parks, Nature reserves, Wildlife reserves, and Landscape protection zones.  In common with the situation in many developing countries, threats to biodiversity in Viet Nam can be ascribed to two basic processes: loss of natural ecosystems; and degradation of natural ecosystems.

The proposed long-term solution for biodiversity conservation in Viet Nam’s system of protected areas is strengthened systemic, institutional and individual capacities, supported by sustainable financing.  Barriers to the implementation of the identified long-term solution can be grouped under four headings: (i) policy; (ii) institutional mandates and individual capacities; (iii) practical experiences with diversified revenue streams; and (iv) monitoring and reporting.  Given these barriers, the proposed Objective of the project is: “To secure a sustainably financed PA system, to conserve globally significant biodiversity”. 

What are the project's key results?

Results achieved in 2011
Activity 1.1.1: Review classification of PAs in line with their primary ecosystem types and Articles 16-20 of 2008 Biodiversity Law
In 2011, a baseline report was completed by a group of national consultants. Key findings of the report are:

  • Review legal basis for primary ecosystem types proposal, including Law on Biodiversity, Decree 65/2010/ND-CP and other related legal documents in the field of specific used forest management and protection
  • Scientific approach of ecosystem classification based on national and international researches and reports
  • Practical experiences on identifying/classifying ecosystems, review existing primary ecosystem types classification proposed by Centre of Plant Diversity, Eric, Ramsar Convention, IUCN, Prof. Mai Dinh Yen, Prof. Thai Van Trung,…
  • Propose approach on important and specific ecosystem identification
    The draft report was consulted with stakeholders, experts, representatives of protected areas via meetings, workshop and field trips. Consultants completed the final version of the report.

Activity 1.1.2. Develop guidelines for formulation of provincial plans for biodiversity conservation 
A baseline report was completed by a group of national consultants. Key results of the report are:

  • Review legal basis for provincial biodiversity conservation planning and guideline for planning, including Law on Biodiversity, national master plan on biodiversity conservation, local plannings as plans for socio-economic development, land - use planning,…
  • Scientific approach of biodiversity conservation planning and guideline for planning
  • Practical experiences on planning in related fields as forest protection planning, inland water protection planning, and plannings in aquaculture sector,…
  • Propose approach on biodiversity conservation planning guideline
    The outline and the draft of baseline report were consulted with experts via meetings, workshop and field trips. Final version of the report has been completed.

Activity 1.2.1.Review mechanisms for sustainable financing of PAs and develop/strengthen legislation

Activity result 3.3.1. Inception report development
During Inception phase, international and national consultants had meetings with many stakeholders such as representatives of MONRE, MARD, VCF, WB, GIZ project on Biodiversity conservation in SUF system, Xuan Thuy national park to get information for Inception report. The report includes information on: 

  • Changes in project environment that may affect project implementation effectiveness
  • Schedule for project environment that may affect project implementation effectiveness
  • Project management structure
  • Stakeholder involvement
  • Revised logical framework matrix

The report was consulted members of Project Steering Committee (PEB) and experts through Inception workshop in Sep 2011. But there are some disagreements between Implementing Agency (MONRE) and Co- Implementing Agency (MARD) about activities and budget of MARD component. Therefore, MONRE-PMU, UNDP and MARD representative had some discussions and meetings after the inception workshop but still not consensus. International consultant and MONRE-PMU revised the report with a harmonized proposal on MONRE and MARD components. The final draft of the report was sent to members of (PSD) for final comment by a comment card. Comment cards have been collected by MONRE-PMU to develop official/final Inception Report for UNDP approval.

Results achieved in 2012

Outcome 1: A comprehensive and harmonized legal and policy framework supports sustainable PA financing

  • Set of criteria indentifying important and specific ecosystems and Draft inter-ministerial circular on criteria identifying primary ecosystem types in accordance with Article 7, Decree No.65/2010/ND-CP on June 11, 2010
    14 criteria have been developed with consultation of experts/stakeholders through 6 meetings and 2 workshops
    These criteria will support for protected area re-classification activity which has been done by VEA
  • Draft guidelines on biodiversity conservation planning at provincial level, in accordance with Law on Biodiversity, Section 2, Articles 12 - 15

    This draft guidelines have been developed with  consultation of experts/stakeholders through 4 meetings and 1 workshops. After that the draft was sent to 40 provincial authorities, DONREs for comment and received nearly 30 official letters. This draft guidelines are now revised (last time) before submitting to VEA for approval

Outcome 2: Clear and harmonized institutional mandates and processes support sustainable PA financing mechanisms

  • Draft cooperation mechanism between MONRE and MARD in the field of biodiversity conservation management. 
    The draft cooperation was sent to MARD for comment and MONRE is waiting for response from MARD to finalize
  • Guidelines on management and sustainable financing planning for PAs
  • Training programs and curricula for target groups
    Training topics, training programs, target groups have been identified. Training topis and qualititative management mechanism between MARD and MONRE have also been gotten consensus

Outcome 3: Knowledge and experience of sustainable financing options developed through demonstrations

  • Evaluate ecosystem services at Bai Tu Long, Bidoup - Nui Ba, Cat Ba and Xuan Thuy national parks
    Main contents of draft reports for Cat Ba and Xuan Thuy have been completed. Draft reports of Bai Tu Long and Bidoup - Nui Ba have been developed
  • Analyse opportunities and develop cooperation model to increase expense-benefit between 2 contiguous PAs
    Chance for Tourism development in cooperation among Bai Tu Long, Cat Ba national parks and HaLong Bay has been identified as the most advantage to increase  expense-benefit for Cat Ba and Bai Tu Long
  • 2 Reports on analysis on development and implementation of (1) management plan and (2) business plan at demonstration PAs
    The report provides overview on current status of  development and implementation of management plan and business plan in PAs in general and demonstration sites in particularManagement and sustainable financing plan for Bidoup - Nui Ba national park

Outcome 4: Knowledge and experience of sustainable financing options developed through demonstrations

  • Analysis on biodiversity monitoring status in PAs and suggestion of monitoring indicators
    Overview on  biodiversity monitoring status in PAs and suggestion of monitoring indicators which will be piloted in a demonstration site next year have been developed
  • Guidelines to develop Report on biodiversity status for PAs
    The guidelines are under revision after 3 meetings with stakeholders/experts
  • Summary report of 2011 National Report on biodiversity status 
    This report is now marquetted and will be public in both Vietnamese and English
    Newsletter No.1

Expected outputs 2013

  • 6 - 8 Training courses for PA staff on essential skills and knowledge
  • Biodiversity planning for Hai Phong province developed and submitted for approval
  • 3 Demonstration models at 3 demonstration sites launched
  • Management and business plan of Cat Ba national park developed
  • Awareness raising programme on biodiversity conservation developed and implemented

Finance, Executing and Implementing Agency

Project Number Funding Executing Agency Implementing Agency
 00059640 Global Environment Facility (GEF): US$ 3,536,360 and National co-financing: US$ 18,541,043 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) Vietnam Environment Administration, MONRE. Co-implementing agencies include the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and National Parks

Delivery in Previous Fiscal Year

Delivery (USD)
2011 74,208
2012 490,200
2013 878,866
2014 1,269,986
2015 645,115

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